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Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Getting Started
1.1.1 Source Tree Overview
1.1.2 Building Pintos
1.1.3 Running Pintos
1.1.4 Debugging versus Testing
1.2 Grading
1.2.1 Testing
1.2.2 Design Design Document Source Code
1.3 Legal and Ethical Issues
1.4 Acknowledgements
1.5 Trivia
2. Project 1: Threads
2.1 Background
2.1.1 Understanding Threads
2.1.2 Source Files devices code lib files
2.1.3 Synchronization
2.1.4 Development Suggestions
2.2 Requirements
2.2.1 Design Document
2.2.2 Alarm Clock
2.2.3 Priority Scheduling
2.2.4 Advanced Scheduler
2.3 FAQ
2.3.1 Alarm Clock FAQ
2.3.2 Priority Scheduling FAQ
2.3.3 Advanced Scheduler FAQ
3. Project 2: User Programs
3.1 Background
3.1.1 Source Files
3.1.2 Using the File System
3.1.3 How User Programs Work
3.1.4 Virtual Memory Layout Typical Memory Layout
3.1.5 Accessing User Memory
3.2 Suggested Order of Implementation
3.3 Requirements
3.3.1 Design Document
3.3.2 Process Termination Messages
3.3.3 Argument Passing
3.3.4 System Calls
3.3.5 Denying Writes to Executables
3.4 FAQ
3.4.1 Argument Passing FAQ
3.4.2 System Calls FAQ
3.5 80x86 Calling Convention
3.5.1 Program Startup Details
3.5.2 System Call Details
4. Project 3: Virtual Memory
4.1 Background
4.1.1 Source Files
4.1.2 Memory Terminology Pages Frames Page Tables Swap Slots
4.1.3 Resource Management Overview
4.1.4 Managing the Supplemental Page Table
4.1.5 Managing the Frame Table Accessed and Dirty Bits
4.1.6 Managing the Swap Table
4.1.7 Managing Memory Mapped Files
4.2 Suggested Order of Implementation
4.3 Requirements
4.3.1 Design Document
4.3.2 Paging
4.3.3 Stack Growth
4.3.4 Memory Mapped Files
4.3.5 Accessing User Memory
4.4 FAQ
5. Project 4: File Systems
5.1 Background
5.1.1 New Code
5.1.2 Testing File System Persistence
5.2 Suggested Order of Implementation
5.3 Requirements
5.3.1 Design Document
5.3.2 Indexed and Extensible Files
5.3.3 Subdirectories
5.3.4 Buffer Cache
5.3.5 Synchronization
5.4 FAQ
5.4.1 Indexed Files FAQ
5.4.2 Subdirectories FAQ
5.4.3 Buffer Cache FAQ
A. Reference Guide
A.1 Loading
A.1.1 The Loader
A.1.2 Low-Level Kernel Initialization
A.1.3 High-Level Kernel Initialization
A.1.4 Physical Memory Map
A.2 Threads
A.2.1 struct thread
A.2.2 Thread Functions
A.2.3 Thread Switching
A.3 Synchronization
A.3.1 Disabling Interrupts
A.3.2 Semaphores
A.3.3 Locks
A.3.4 Monitors
A.3.4.1 Monitor Example
A.3.5 Optimization Barriers
A.4 Interrupt Handling
A.4.1 Interrupt Infrastructure
A.4.2 Internal Interrupt Handling
A.4.3 External Interrupt Handling
A.5 Memory Allocation
A.5.1 Page Allocator
A.5.2 Block Allocator
A.6 Virtual Addresses
A.7 Page Table
A.7.1 Creation, Destruction, and Activation
A.7.2 Inspection and Updates
A.7.3 Accessed and Dirty Bits
A.7.4 Page Table Details
A.7.4.1 Structure
A.7.4.2 Page Table Entry Format
A.7.4.3 Page Directory Entry Format
A.8 Hash Table
A.8.1 Data Types
A.8.2 Basic Functions
A.8.3 Search Functions
A.8.4 Iteration Functions
A.8.5 Hash Table Example
A.8.6 Auxiliary Data
A.8.7 Synchronization
B. 4.4BSD Scheduler
B.1 Niceness
B.2 Calculating Priority
B.3 Calculating recent_cpu
B.4 Calculating load_avg
B.5 Summary
B.6 Fixed-Point Real Arithmetic
C. Coding Standards
C.1 Style
C.2 C99
C.3 Unsafe String Functions
D. Project Documentation
D.1 Sample Assignment
D.2 Sample Design Document
E. Debugging Tools
E.1 printf()
E.3 Function and Parameter Attributes
E.4 Backtraces
E.4.1 Example
E.5.1 Using GDB
E.5.2 Example GDB Session
E.5.3 FAQ
E.6 Triple Faults
E.7 Modifying Bochs
E.8 Tips
F. Development Tools
F.1 Tags
F.2 cscope
F.3.1 Setting Up CVS
F.3.2 Using CVS
F.3.3 CVS Locking
G. Installing Pintos
G.1 Building Bochs for Pintos
G.2 Hardware References
G.3 Software References
G.4 Operating System Design References

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