TABLE 3. Design Features and Stages of Moral Development

PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL

PRIVACY - minimal (moral behavior based on fear of detection and punishment)

DESIGNS - surveillance, monitoring of communications and activities; strict limits on access to information on a need-to-know basis

CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

PRIVACY - "backstage" areas where groups are relatively free of official surveillance and can develop expectations of responsible behavior towards the group; however privacy from group members is limited and nonanonymous.

DESIGNS - social sanctions ("gagging", removal of offensive individuals from groups by group members, resources controlled by group which can be used as rewards), informal communications (for building trust and solidarity, providing symbolic rewards and sanctions, and negotiating members obligations and responsibilities)

POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL

PRIVACY - both from authorities and from groups, individuals free to self-regulate behavior and avoid group demands. Like-minded individuals free to form new groups without permission of authorities or existing groups. In workplace designs features for anonymous suggestions and whistleblowing.

DESIGNS - encryption, anonymity, freedom of speech, assembly, and connection, ownership of electronic resources by private persons and groups, legal guarantees of privacy, electronic search warrants, means for informal communication about rights, values, and principles.