TABLE 1. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Judgment


PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL

Stage 1. Punishment and Obedience
Right is literal obedience to rules and authority to avoid punishment.

Stage 2. Individual Instrumental Purpose and Exchange
Right is acting on one's own interests and letting others do the same. Right is also what is fair and an agreed upon equal deal.

CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

Stage 3. Conformity to Mutual Roles, Relationships and Norms.
Right is based on reciprocity, concern for others and for "being good" based on one's view of self and significant others.

Stage 4. Social System and Conscience Maintenance
Right is fulfilling duties to society and maintaining social order and group welfare.

POSTCONVENTIONAL AND PRINCIPLED LEVEL

Stage 5. Social Contract
Right is based on rights, laws and values of society, even against rules of a group.

Stage 6. Universal Ethical Principles
Right is based on universal ethical principles applying to all people and upon which society's rules are based.