On this page:
1 Creating a Language
2 Mixing up Languages
3 Safety for Multiple Languages
4 Languages and Research

Racket is ...

4 June 2011

Racket is a programming language. That’s what it says at http://racket-lang.org. But what does this mean?

To a programmer, Racket is a programming language, a wide-spectrum language, and a family of programming languages. As a programming language, Racket inherits many traits from Lisp, Scheme, and the functional programming culture but it also mixes in elements of object-oriented programming. A Racket programmer can design code in a variety of styles and dialects: the untyped core (racket/base) is reminiscent of plain Scheme and Lisp; the “full” version (racket) supplies conventional classes plus mixins and traits, among other things; the typed variant (typed/racket) is as type-safe as ML yet accommodates many of the untyped programming patterns that Lispers and Schemers know and love; the dataflow version of Racket (frtime) brings on-demand programming to our world; the web server language (web-server) adds capabilities for writing web servlets; and the lazy version (lazy) empowers programmers to act as if they were writing stream-based programs in Haskell. Best of all, Racket comes with a module system that allows programmers to write modules in distinct members of the Racket family and to safely link these modules together. In short, a Racket programmer chooses the most appropriate language and programming style for the task at hand, creates a module, and eventually links the various modules into a coherent whole.

To a language designer, Racket is a programming language laboratory. This does not mean that the language is unstable. The designers do not change the language in a whimsical manner. That is, Racket comes with a unique collection of linguistic mechanisms that enable the quick construction of reliable languages, language fragments, and their composition. These tools are so easy to use that plain programmers can design a language after a little bit of instruction. So when a well-trained programmer decides that none of the available dialects is well-suited for a task, he designs a new dialect and writes his program in it. As Paul Hudak said, “the ultimate abstraction is a domain specific language.”

For a programmer who grew up in a conventional language, say C or Java, creating his very own language may not mean anything. Or it may mean an overwhelming amount of work: a lexer, a parser, a type checker, a code generator, and possibly more. None of this is necessarily needed in Racket. With Racket a programmer hooks additions into the desirable point of the language processing tool chain, and voila there is a new language. The most common entry points are the additions of new language constructs—via macros—and the creation of complete language dialects—via much more than macros.

1 Creating a Language

Here is a simple Racket module:

simple

#lang racket
 
(define (count l)
  (cond
    [(empty? l) 0]
    [else (+ (count (rest l)) 1)]))
 
(define result (count '(a b c)))
 
(displayln `(the result is ,result))
The first line of the module specifies the language of the module, in this case racket. The body of the module intermingles definitions and expressions. When run, the module prints ‘(the result is 3).

The language of a module is simply a path to a Racket module that exports some essential pieces of functionality. In principle, all that is needed is a definition for #%module-begin, a form that processes the body of the module. So here is an extremely small language:

silly-lang

#lang racket
 
(define-syntax-rule
  (count-forms mexpr ...)
  (#%module-begin
    `(the module contains ,(length '(mexpr ...)) forms)))
 
(provide (rename-out (count-forms #%module-begin)))
This plain Racket module defines one syntactic rewriting rule. Its purpose is to rewrite shapes of the form (count-forms expr1 ... exprN) into the shape
(#%module-begin
  `(the module contains ,(length '(expr1 ... exprN)) forms))
Since Racket is a lexically scoped language, #%module-begin in this rewritten form is the one from Racket. Finally the module exports this syntactic rewriting rule under the new name #%module-begin.

When Racket—the language family—encounters a module, it packages up the rest of the module into a sequence and wraps it with (#%module-begin ...). Racket needs a little bit more than a module to create a language. A module per se is a language mixin and the s-exp turns the mixin into a language. Roughly speaking, it turns the module into an S-expression by wrapping the series of expressions and definitions with (module simple-in-silly "silly-lang.rkt" ...). Hence if we change the language of our simple module to silly like this:

simple-in-silly

#lang s-exp "silly-lang.rkt"
 
(define (count l)
  (cond
    [(empty? l) 0]
    [else (+ (count (rest l)) 1)]))
 
(define result (count '(a b c)))
 
(displayln `(the result is ,result))
Racket applies the rewriting rule originally defined as count-forms and renamed on export to #%module-begin. It thus obtains a new module body and evaluates it, which prints
  (the module contains 3 forms)
In short, creating a language is as easy as writing a module.

Take a look at this slightly more interesting programming language:

pseudo-lazy

#lang racket
 
(provide #%module-begin #%datum #%top-interaction
         define lambda
         [rename-out (application #%app) ... (div /)])
 
(define-syntax-rule
  (application function-position argument ...)
  (function-position (lambda () argument) ...))
_ _ _
(define (strictify f)
  (lambda args (apply f (map force* args))))
_ _ _
(define div (strictify /))
_ _ _
It re-exports several pieces of functionality from plain Racket: #%module-begin; #%datum, which allows us to write down literals; #%top-interaction, which enables interactive expression evaluations; plus the define and lambda forms. These re-exports demonstrate how a language designer can reuse constructs from the core language and implicitly exclude others. This form of linguistic reuse is unique to Racket, and it is what makes language creators highly productive.

Finally the pseudo-lazy module exports the locally defined application rewriting rule with the name #%app. The latter is the syntax that the parser assigns to function applications. What this export means then is that every function application is rewritten with the arguments turned into functions of no arguments (aka, thunks).

As the name of the module suggests, it provides some amount of laziness. The following example illustrates the idea:

lazy-test

#lang s-exp "pseudo-lazy.rkt"
 
(define (hänsel x) 42)
(define (gretel x) (x))
 
(hänsel (/ 1 0))
(gretel (/ 1 0))
This module defines two functions: hänsel and gretel. The former returns 42, the latter invokes its argument as a thunk. The two definitions are followed by applications of the functions. When run, the first function application returns 42 even though the argument divides 1 by 0; in other words, we have successfully modified the call-by-value behavior of plain Racket’s function applications. The second function application, however, raises the exception once the thunk is applied to no arguments.

For good measure let’s experiment in the read-eval-print-loop of DrRacket, the Racket IDE:
> ((lambda (x) 42)
   ((lambda (x) (x x))
    (lambda (x) (x x))))

42

Once the module is loaded, DrRacket treats expressions as if they belong to the module. In particular, they are executed in the specified language, not in Racket. Hence, applying a constant function to the most famous diverging (looping) lambda calculus expression works the way every lazy programmer expects it to work.

No, the pseudo-lazy language isn’t a lazy variant of Racket (yet). But it took only a few minutes to create the language and to test it. Even the Racket IDE understands the language, and all that takes is a re-export of #%top-interaction from the language module. And with another couple of hours of work, a Racket programmer can create a full-fledged lazy variant and use it for his work.

2 Mixing up Languages

So Racket is a language for creating and mixing up languages. Let’s see how a production programmer may exploit this idea.

Everyone who has constructed a large software system knows that different aspects of a project call for different languages. For example, many projects need small domain-specific languages for system configuration tasks, for the formulation of business rules, and so on. With Racket a programmer can easily create such special-purpose languages. As the first section shows, it is easy to reuse existing constructs—e.g., define or lambdaand it is equally easy to modify others—e.g., function application. The Racket code base comes with 40 such special-purpose languages. A financial company may create languages for formulating financial contracts See Peyton Jones, Eber, Seward. Composing contracts: an adventure in financial engineering. Intern. Conf. Funct. Progr. 2000. and a language for creating such contracts from a GUI; the overall system may then use Racket or Typed Racket to dynamically link and process modules in these languages.

Here is another example, taking a temporal point of view on system development. During the early stage of a project, programmers benefits from prototyping, and that calls for a dynamic, untyped language. As everyone knows, such prototypes quickly turn into full-fledged, useful applications, and managers call for deployment and maintenance of what was once thought of as throw-away code. At this stage, maintainers may wish to equip the prototype with additional information in order to reduce maintenance cost. Type information is one of the first things that comes to mind. But migrating a large project from an untyped language to a typed language isn’t a simple undertaking. Ideally this should happen on a module by module basis and in such a way that each intermediate product passes the test suite. In Racket, a programmer conducts such a migration in a straightforward manner. He picks a racket module and changes the language to typed/racket. To get this module to run, the programmer will have to equip imports from untyped modules with types, annotate all function and struct definitions with types, and perhaps modify some small pieces of code.

Racket is built for this kind of system building. As mentioned, Racket’s module system can link modules written in distinct languages into a working system. This linking step may introduce problems, however, if language creators aren’t careful. Every (high level) language—whether it is implemented in Racket or some other language—establishes and assumes invariants. If these invariants are violated, all hell may break loose. Put differently, a language implementor must ensure that the invariants of his language remain intact even when a module in this language is linked into a multi-lingual system.

3 Safety for Multiple Languages

PLT has solved a number of instances of the multi-language problem. From a programmer’s perspective, it is best to explain the problem and its solution for the linking of Racket and Typed Racket modules. Most programmers will initially use these two languages, and most programmers may have encountered a variant of the problem, say, linking Java and C.

The chosen sample system consists of two base modules: one that implements a dictionary and a second one that uses the dictionary’s functionality to count words. Here is the dictionary, implemented in the plain Racket language:

dictionary

#lang racket
 
(provide in-dictionary?)
 
(define *dictionary '("cat" "dog" "frog" "zebra"))
 
(define (in-dictionary? w)
  (member w *dictionary))
During maintenance the second module has been migrated to Typed Racket:

count

#lang typed/racket
 
(require/typed "dictionary.rkt"
               (in-dictionary? (String -> Any)))
 
(provide count-words)
 
(: count-words : ((Listof String) -> Natural))
(define (count-words lw)
  (for/fold: ({c  : Natural 0}) ({w lw} #:when (in-dictionary? w))
             (+ c 1)))
Although the details don’t matter too much, note that the module’s require specification assigns a type to the dictionary’s lookup function and that the for/fold loop demands type specification for the result but not the iteration variable; the latter type is inferred from the context.

Imagine that these two modules must be linked somewhere in the rest of the system. Here are two basic scenarios:

good

#lang racket
(require "count.rkt")
(count-words
  '("tiger" "=" "cat"))

bad

#lang racket
(require "count.rkt")
(count-words
  "tiger = cat")

Both modules require the count module. But, while the module on the left uses the count-words function with a list, the one on the right applies it to a single string. That is, the module on the right violates the type signature of count-words, which has been used to compile the function. Unless Typed Racket protects all of its exports appropriately, such a violation may trigger seg faults, core dumps, bus errors, or other painful experiences—all of which shouldn’t happen in a soundly typed, safe language.

In the case of Typed Racket, we implement this protection with a mechanism that generalizes Eiffel’s contracts. Racket comes with the most expressive contract notation in the world of programming languages. Programmers may impose invariants on first-class functions, first-class classes, and other constructs that don’t even exist in many conventional languages. When an exported value flows from a Typed Racket module to a plain Racket module, its types are translated into contracts and these contracts are wrapped around the value. The contracts check at run-time that every use of the value in an untyped module proceeds according to the original type signature; if not, the contract raises an exception, analogous to a run-time exception in Java. Naturally, an imported value that flows from plain Racket modules into Typed Racket modules calls for the same kind of protection. Typed Racket therefore requires type specifications for such imports, and of course, these type specifications also become contract wrappers at run-time. As a result, a system that consists of Racket and Typed Racket modules is completely safe, and the linking is extremely smooth.

To summarize, the creation of a safe language demands a lot of attention from the language designer. First, it demands a thorough understanding of the invariants that a language should come with. Second, it calls for a prediction as to where modules in this language will be used so that the language can be equipped with mechanism that enforces the invariants in all contexts. Providing support for the creation of such enforcement mechanisms is one of the research themes of PLT.

4 Languages and Research

Racket is a stable programming language that has found many uses in commercial contexts, open source projects, and educational settings. Typed Racket is a carefully crafted complement to Racket. It is as type-safe as any modern language, and it protects its modules from all potential abuses by untyped clients. The Racket download package comes with several other languages that provide the same level of integrity guarantees as Typed Racket. The most prominent examples are the Insta language for web servlets; Redex, a modeling language; SlideShow, a presentation language; Scribble, a type setting language;This document is programmed in Scribble. When the program is run, it produces this web page. To ensure that Racket lives up to its promises, the program evaluates the interactions and examples in the preceding sections. In other words, the displayed results in a Scribble program always match what the program produces. and FrTime, a dataflow language. All of these languages interact safely with Racket programs and vice versa.

At the same time, Racket is also a research platform for PLT. Some of the research projects are conventional and could be carried out in the context of any modern language. For example, we have conducted research on garbage collection and type systems for recursively linked, first-class modules; we have created automated support for modeling mathematical reduction systems; and we have conducted research on web programming and data-flow programming. Currently, we are extending our contract system to cope with first-class classes; equipping Racket with mechanisms for performing computations in parallel; expanding Typed Racket’s implementation to take advantage of types during compilation. While the Racket code base greatly facilitates these projects, it isn’t essential to them. Assuming sufficiently strong outside forces, we could conduct this kind of work on top of several other platforms and our results apply to these other platforms.

Two of our efforts are unconventional in that they concern Racket as a programming language for programming languages. Both efforts aim to increase the potential of linguistic reuse. The first line of research is about linguistic constructs for the creation of languages. For example, a recently completed Northeastern dissertation proposes and explores novel constructs for formulating syntactic rewriting rules and tools for tracing their execution. One current projects concerns tools for equipping special-purpose languages with optimizing compilers when needed. The second line of research concerns language interoperability. One of PLT’s theoretical dissertations—completed at the University of Chicago—lays the foundations of language interoperability. The dissertation on Typed Racket turned some of these ideas into one practical instance. In the near future we expect to execute a similar program for the integration of Racket with Lazy Racket. The goal is to learn enough so that we can formulate guidelines for making languages safe; extend Racket with constructs that help doing so; and to create tools that help working programmers apply these ideas to their own creations.

Acknowledgment Thanks to Shriram Krishnamurthi for the idea of illustrating the creation of languages with pseudo-lazy, and thanks to him, Matthew Flatt, and Robby Findler for discussions of the initial draft. Thanks to Vincent St-Amour, Sam Tobin-Hochstadt, and Neil Van Dyke for additional comments.

Additional Readings

Danny Yoo, Brainfudge, or How to Produce a Language Without Parentheses in Racket

Ryan Culpepper, Refining Syntactic Sugar: Tools for Supporting Macro Development

Sam Tobin-Hochstadt, Typed Racket: From Scripts to Programs

Jacob Matthews, The Meaning of Multi-language Programs

Greg Cooper, Integrating Dataflow Evaluation into a Practical Higher-Order Call-by-Value Language