Preface: The Little Schemer

Recursion is the act of defining an object or solving a problem in terms of itself. A careless recursion can lead to an infinite regress. We avoid the bottomless circularity inherent in this tactic by demanding that the recursion be stated in terms of some ``simpler'' object, and by providing the definition or solution of some trivial base case. Properly used, recursion is a powerful problem solving technique, both in artificial domains like mathematics and computer programming, and in real life.

The goal of this book is to teach the reader to think recursively. Our first task, therefore, is to decide which language to use to communicate this concept. There are three obvious choices: a natural language, such as English; formal mathematics; or a programming language. Natural languages are ambiguous, imprecise, and sometimes awkwardly verbose. These are all virtues for general communication, but something of a drawback for communicating concisely as precise a concept as the power of recursion. The language of mathematics is the opposite of natural language: it can express powerful formal ideas with only a few symbols. We could, for example, describe the entire technical content of this book in less than a page of mathematics, but the reader who understands that page has little need for this book. For most people, formal mathematics is not very intuitive. The marriage of technology and mathematics presents us with a third, almost ideal choice: a programming language. Programming languages are perhaps the best way to convey the concept of recursion. They share with mathematics the ability to give a formal meaning to a set of symbols. But unlike mathematics, programming languages can be directly experienced---you can take the programs in this book and try them, observe their behavior, modify them, and experience the effect of your modifications.

Perhaps the best programming language for teaching recursion is Lisp. Lisp is inherently symbolic---the programmer does not have to make an explicit mapping between the symbols of his own language and the representations in the computer. Recursion is Lisp's natural computational mechanism; the primary programming activity is the creation of (potentially) recursive definitions. Lisp implementations are predominantly interactive---the programmer can immediately participate in and observe the behavior of his programs. And, perhaps most importantly for our lessons at the end of this book, there is a direct correspondence between the structure of Lisp programs and the data those programs manipulate.

Lisp is practical. It is the dominant language for work in artificial intelligence: computational linguistics, robotics, pattern recognition, expert systems, generalized problem solving, theorem proving, game playing, algebraic manipulation, etc. It has had a major influence on most other fields of computer science.

Although Lisp can be described quite formally, understanding Lisp does not require a particularly mathematical inclination. In fact, The Little LISPer is based on lecture notes from a two-week ``quickie'' introduction to Lisp for students with no previous programming experience and an admitted dislike for anything quantitative. Many of these students were preparing for careers in public affairs. It is our belief that writing programs recursively in Lisp is essentially simple pattern recognition. Since our only concern is recursive programming, our treatment is limited to the why's and wherefore's of just a few Lisp features: car, cdr, cons, eq?, atom?, null?, number?, zero?, add1, sub1, not, and, or, quote, lambda, define, and cond. Indeed, our language is an idealized Lisp.

The Little LISPer is not a complete book on Lisp. However, mastery of the concepts in this book is mastery of the foundations of Lisp---after you understand this material, the rest will be easy.


Many people made important contributions to the first edition of this book. The following acknowledgement appeared there:

Many thanks to John McCarthy, Mike Greenawalt, John Howard, Terry Pratt, David Musser, William Gear, Mark Elson, Harold Stone, Jonathan Slocum, Juny Armus, Bob Wesson, and Marylin Sealy for their extremely helpful comments about The Little LISPer. Grateful appreciation to Ben Shneiderman and Steve Mitchell for believing in this unorthodox approach to Lisp. Thank you to Bill Cohagan who taught me Lisp and to Ann and Frances Patterson for their careful typing and proofreading of this manuscript. I am greatly indebted to Patrick Mahaffey for his futuristic ideas of teaching Lisp to public affairs graduate students and to John Gronouski, Dean of the Lyndon Baines Johnson School of Public Affairs, who was persuaded to try the experiment. I want to thank the four public affairs graduate students, Phillip S. Blackerby, Robert J. King, David L. Walrath, and Abraham Goldberg who not only were students in the ``quickie'' course but also persevered with me an additional week for the completion of the first draft. I especially want to thank Abraham Goldberg who contributed his editing talents and novice perspective for that week. Above all, I want to thank my wife Mary for her understanding, encouragement, and concern for my well-being during the completion of this manuscript.

We are indebted to many people for their contributions and assistance throughout the development of this book. We thank Bruce Duba, Kent Dybvig, Chris Haynes, Eugene Kohlbecker, Richard Salter, George Springer, Mitch Wand, and David S. Wise for countless discussions which influenced our thinking while conceiving this book. Ghassan Abbas, Charles Baker, David Boyer, Mike Dunn, Terry Falkenberg, Robert Friedman, John Gateley, Mayer Goldberg, Iqbal Khan, Julia Lawall, Jon Mendelsohn, John Nienart, Jeffrey D. Perotti, Ed Robertson, Anne Shpuntoff, Erich Smythe, Guy Steele, Todd Stein, and Larry Weisselberg provided many important comments on the drafts of the book. We especially want to thank Bob Filman for being such a thorough and uncompromising critic through several readings. Finally we wish to acknowledge Nancy Garrett, Peg Fletcher, and Bob Filman for contributing to the design and TeX-ery. We particularly want to thank Nancy for her valiant efforts in correcting errors and entering changes in what must have seemed a sea of incomprehensible ASCII.

Guidelines for the Reader

Do not rush through this book. Read carefully; valuable hints are scattered throughout the text. Do not read the book in less than three sittings unless you are already familiar with Lisp but are not a ``LISPer.'' Read systematically. If you do not fully understand one chapter, you will understand the next one even less. The questions are ordered by increasing difficulty; it will be hard to answer later ones if you cannot solve the earlier ones.

Guess! This book is based on intuition, and yours is as good as anyone's. Also, if you can, try the examples while you read. Lisps are readily available. While there are minor syntactic variations between different implementations of Lisp (primarily the spelling of particular names and the domain of specific functions), Lisp is basically the same throughout the world. To work with Lisp, you may need to modify the programs slightly. Typically, the material requires only a few changes for modern Lisps such as COMMON LISP [4] and Scheme [1, 2]. Suggestions about how to try the programs in the book are provided in the footnotes. Footnotes preceded by ``L:'' concern Lisp, those by ``S:'' concern Scheme. For Scheme, you may have to enter the definitions of add1, sub1, and atom? because some implementations do not provide these functions:

(define add1 (let ((f +)) (lambda (x) (f x 1))))
(define sub1 (let ((f -)) (lambda (x) (f x 1))))
(define atom? (let ((f1 pair?) (f2 not)) (lambda (x) (f2 (f1 x)))))
We have formulated these definitions in such way that they are safe from re-definition of built-in functions; this is particularly important for Chapter 4 where we discuss versions of + and - in terms of add1 and sub1.

We do not give any formal definitions in this book. We believe that you can form your own definitions and will thus remember them and understand them better than if we had written each one for you. But be sure you know and understand the Commandments and Laws thoroughly before passing them by. The key to learning Lisp is ``pattern recognition.'' The Commandments point out the patterns that you will have already seen. Early in the book, some concepts are narrowed for simplicity; later, they are expanded and qualified. You should also know that, while everything in the book is Lisp, Lisp itself is more general and incorporates more than we could intelligibly cover in an introductory text. After you have mastered this book, you can read and understand more advanced and comprehensive books on Lisp.

We use a few notational conventions throughout the text, primarily changes in font for different classes of symbols. Programs in notes preceded by ``L:'' or ``S:'' are set in typewriter font. Function definitions are in roman characters, parameters are in italic, and data is in sans serif. The values for true and false are in slanted font. Special symbols such as define and cond are in boldface. These distinctions can be safely ignored until Chapter 10, when we treat programs as data. We have taken certain liberties with punctuation to increase clarity.

Food appears in many of our examples for two reasons. First, food is easier to visualize than abstract symbols. (This is not a good book to read while dieting.) We hope the choice of food will help you understand the examples and concepts we use. Second, we want to provide you with a little distraction. We know how frustrating the subject matter can be, and a little distraction will help you keep your sanity.

You are now ready to start. Good luck! We hope you will enjoy the challenges waiting for you on the following pages.

Bon appétit!

Daniel P. Friedman
Matthias Felleisen
Bloomington, Indiana