Lecturer in Computer Science
College of Computer and Information Science
310B West Village H
E-Mail: lrazzaq at ccs . neu . edu
Fundamentals of Computer Science I
Fundamentals of Computer Science II
Computer Science and its Applications (CS1100)
My research focuses on improving student learning from educational
technologies. I am most interested in the areas of intelligent tutoring
systems, human-computer interaction and user modeling. My Ph.D.
dissertation focused on adapting tutoring strategies to students of
differing abilities. My work is interdisciplinary and I
have collaborated with researchers in the fields of
Computer Science, Cognitive Psychology, Education, Mathematics and
I was a postdoctoral researcher for the Center for Knowledge Communication. The
CKC is a research group
in the Department of Computer Science at the
University of Massachusetts Amherst. We develop tutoring systems that are capable of functioning
responsively, comprehensively, and flexibly to a wide
variety of students, within a variety of domains, and with multiple tutoring strategies.
Currently, I am working on a system called 4mality for
3rd and 4th grade students learning to solve math word problems.
For each problem in 4mality, there are strategies and suggestions authored from a particular problem-solving point of view. Four virtual coaches are designed to capture the character of
different problem-solving approaches.
I was a primary member of the ASSISTment Project which is a
web-based tutoring system that assesses
while it tutors. My role in this project was Content Director, where I was
in charge of designing how problems are tutored to students.
This can involve writing question text, drawing images and animations and
designing tutor strategies. I was also in charge of approving content
that other group members have designed. I spent a large amount of time in
middle schools and high schools in the Worcester area, helping teachers
use the system in their classrooms and running randomized controlled
studies to determine the best tutoring practices. I have helped to advise
undergraduate students who have completed projects with the ASSISTment
Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. (2010) Open content Authoring Tools. In Nkambou, Bourdeau & Mizoguchi (Eds.) Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Springer Verlag, 425-439.
B1. Razzaq, Heffernan, Koedinger, Feng, Nuzzo-Jones, Junker,
Rasmussen, Turner & Walonoski (2007). Blending Assessment and
Instructional Assistance. In Nadia Nedjah, Luiza deMacedo Mourelle, Mario
Neto Borges and Nival Nunesde Almeida (Eds). Intelligent Educational
Machines within the Intelligent Systems Engineering Book Series. 23-49
Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Robert Maloy, Leena Razzaq, & Sharon A. Edwards. (forthcoming). Learning by Choosing: Fourth Graders Use of an Online Multimedia Tutoring System for Math Problem Solving. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.
J4. Razzaq, L., Parvarczki, J., Almeida, S.F., Vartak, M., Feng, M.,
Heffernan, N.T. and Koedinger, K.
(2009). The ASSISTment builder:
Life-cycle of ITS Content Creation. IEEE Transactions on Learning
Technologies Special Issue on Real-World Applications of Intelligent
Tutoring Systems. 2(2) 157-166. pdf
- J3. Mendicino, M., Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. T. (2009)
Comparison of Traditional Homework
with Computer Supported Homework. Journal of Research on Technology in
Education, 41(3), 331-359.
J2. Heffernan, N. T., Koedinger, K. R. & Razzaq, L. (2008) Expanding
model-tracing architecture: A 3rd
generation intelligent tutor for Algebra symbolization. The International
Artificial Intelligence in Education. 18(2). pp. 153-178. IOS Press.
J1. Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N., Feng, M., Pardos Z. (2007). Developing
Fine-Grained Transfer Models in the ASSISTment System. Journal of
Cognition, and Learning, 5(3), 289-304.
Peer Reviewed Conference Papers
Razzaq, L., Maloy, R., Edwards, S., Marshall, D., Arroyo, I., Woolf, B. (2011) 4MALITY: Coaching Students with Different Problem Solving Strategies Using an Online Tutoring System. (p. 359-364). In J. A. Konstan, Ricardo Conejo, Jose L, Marzo & Nuria Oliver, User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization 19th International Conference, UMAP 2011, Girona, Spain, July 11-15 Proceedings. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. (2010) Hints: Is It Better to Give or Wait to be Asked? In Aleven, V., Kay, J & Mostow, J. (Eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS2010) Part 1. Springer. Pages 349-358.
Shrestha, P., Maharjan, A., Wei, X., Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N.T.,
Heffernan, C. (2009) Are Worked Examples an Effective Feedback
Mechanism During Problem Solving? In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.),
Proceedings of the
31th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science
Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N.T. (2009) To Tutor or Not to Tutor: That is the
Question. In Dimitrova, Mizoguchi,
du Boulay and Graesser (Eds.) Proceedings of the Conference on
Artificial Intelligence in Education. pp. 457-464. Honorable Mention
for Best Student Paper
Razzaq, L., Mendicino, M. & Heffernan, N. (2008)
Comparing classroom problem-solving with no feedback to web-based homework
assistance. In Woolf,
Aimeur, Nkambou and Lajoie (Eds.) Proceeding of the 9th International
Conference on Intelligent
Tutoring Systems. pp. 426 - 437.
Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N.T., Towards Designing a User-Adaptive
Web-Based E-Learning System,
In Mary Czerwinski, Arnold M. Lund, Desney S. Tan (Eds.): Extended
Abstracts Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems, CHI 2008, (pp. 3525-3530). Florence, Italy: ACM
Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N. T., Lindeman, R. W. (2007) What level of tutor
interaction is best? In Luckin & Koedinger (Eds) Proceedings of the 13th
Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. IOS Press. pp.
Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N.T. (2006). Scaffolding vs. hints in the
Assistment System. In Ikeda, Ashley & Chan (Eds.). Proceedings of the 8th
International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Springer-Verlag:
Berlin. pp. 635-644. 2006.
K. Bush, J. Gray, M. Holmes, K. Kosinski, J. Orr, L. Razzaq, J. Rulfs
(2006) How do you Teach Engineering in Kindergarten and First Grade?
of the 113th American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference,
Chicago, IL, June 18-21, 2006.
Razzaq, L., Feng, M., Nuzzo-Jones, G., Heffernan, N.T., Koedinger, K. R.,
Junker, B., Ritter,
S., Knight, A., Aniszczyk, C., Choksey, S., Livak, T., Mercado, E.,
Turner, T.E., Upalekar.
R, Walonoski, J.A., Macasek. M.A., Rasmussen, K.P. (2005).
The Assistment Project: Blending Assessment and Assisting.
In C.K. Looi, G. McCalla, B. Bredeweg, & J. Breuker (Eds.) Proceedings of
International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp.
555-562. Amsterdam: IOS
Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. T (2004) Tutorial dialog in an equation solving
intelligent tutoring system. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu
(Eds.) Proceedings of 7th Annual Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference,
Maceio, Brazil. Pages 851-853. Best Poster Award