Scientific Community Game (SCG) Kinds

Terminology: virtual scientist: playing directly or indirectly by producing a software agent that plays. We distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric SCG, as well as direct and indirect SCG as well as formal and informal SCG.

In asymmetric SCG, the niches are defined by the chief scientist. In symmetric SCG, the virtual scientists select niches with a prediction function.

In direct SCG, humans play the role of virtual scientist. In indirect SCG, software (written by humans) plays the role of virtual scientist.

In formal SCG, the communication languages, including the problem and solution languages, are defined by context-free grammars. The semantics of those languages are defined precisely. In informal SCG, the communication languages are left open and any precise, human understandable notation can be used.

indirect SCG requires formal SCG.

Asymmetric and Direct SCG

We use an informal version of SCG where the players are humans and where precise English definitions are sufficient so that all parties: the two virtual scientists and the administrator and the chief scientist can agree on decisions. Innovation is done in teams of three with a fourth member, the chief scientist, setting the subject, called a niche of problems to be solved. The two virtual scientists, Alice and Bob, make discoveries and communicate them as problem solving techniques and their execution on specific problems. The administrator, called Nina, supervises Alice and Bob. Nina is a trusted intermediary who gets to know about Alice and Bob's solution techniques and secret solutions. But Nina hides those reliably from the other party. Nina needs to know Alice' and Bob's secrets so that she can verify Alice' and Bob's claims.

Advantages: Very flexible, widely applicable. Good for preparing for indirect SCG. Disadvantages: Evaluation is not automated. Needs trusted administrator. Disputes because of unclear communications and definitions.

Asymmetric and Indirect SCG

This version of SCG is suitable when the problem solving techniques are so precise that they can be executed or simulated on a machine. The word indirect is used because the virtual scientists don't play directly but they play through agents.