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Word morphology

This deals with aspects of word formation such as plurals, hyphenated forms, and various affixes. These are quite common in biology, so it is useful to understand this field. Examples of common prefixes and suffixes are: ortho-, poly-, micro-, -ase, -some, -cin, -ine, -globin, -genic, and many more. Simple "stemming" chops off suffixes, typically to turn plurals into singulars, but more careful manipulations can be done.

The books below all require some competence in mathematics, particularly discrete math and probability, statistics and some information theory.

Statistical NLP

Finite-State Methods

Statistical Language Learning