Pushdown Control-Flow Analysis of Higher-Order Programs.
Christopher Earl, Matthew Might, and David Van Horn.
The 2010 Workshop on Scheme and Functional Programming (SFP 2010), Montréal, Québec, Canada, August, 2010.

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Context-free approaches to static analysis gain precision over classical approaches by perfectly matching returns to call sites—a property that eliminates spurious interprocedural paths. Vardoulakis and Shivers's recent formulation of CFA2 showed that it is possible (if expensive) to apply context-free methods to higher-order languages and gain the same boost in precision achieved over first-order programs.

To this young body of work on context-free analysis of higher-order programs, we contribute a pushdown control-flow analysis framework, which we derive as an abstract interpretation of a CESK machine with an unbounded stack. One instantiation of this framework marks the first polyvariant pushdown analysis of higher-order programs; another marks the first polynomial-time analysis. In the end, we arrive at a framework for control-flow analysis that can efficiently compute pushdown generalizations of classical control-flow analyses.